Page 16 - NGA By-Laws
P. 16

generally associated with prior steroid use. Beneath the chest, the ABDOMINAL area should be clearly visible, with at least three horizontal grooves (lineae transversa), the third being at the level of the navel or slightly below. A vertical groove (linea alba) should be visible along the midline, with the abdominals clearly separated from the external obliques by lines which arc around and extend downward and inward toward the pubis (linea semilunares). The serratus anterior should be visible above the obliques, and below, the internal obliques and tensor fasciae latae should be visible above the hips.
The LEGS should feature balanced development of the quadriceps at the front, as well as that of the adductors along the inner thigh. From a rear view, the gluteal should be of a muscular nature, squared and trim rather than appearing soft and round. Separate and distinct development should be evident in the leg biceps when rear poses are done, featuring the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus. Calf muscles should be developed and appear prominent from the front (tibialis) and rear (gastrocnemius and soleus). The gastrocnemius should be noticeably divided between the two muscle heads, with the medial head somewhat longer. Calves should have a 60% circumference ratio when compared to the upper legs.
In looking at these muscle groupings, judges should be aware of the SHAPE, SIZE, DEFINITION and HARDNESS of each muscle. Muscles should have a pleasing contour (shape), with origins and insertions that give the appearance of appropriate placement within the anatomy. Average or long-bellied muscles are more desirable than short-bellied, in that they do not leave gaps in the physique (such as a gap near the inside elbow for a person with a short biceps muscle, or the long gap in the Achilles area for someone with short calf muscles). A full, well-positioned muscularity has a more favorable appearance and should be judged accordingly.
Size is not necessarily the key-determining factor, but evidence of thick muscularity is desirable in comparing qualities among bodybuilders. While genetic predispositions affect these qualities, successful bodybuilders have been able to overcome such "shortcomings" and make up for lack of muscle belly length or size in other areas.
The aspect of definition is equally important in judging muscularity. It must be possible to distinguish between muscles and muscle groups, as in demarcation of muscle outlines, as well as the visibility of markings (striations) between fibers within a separate muscle. Leanness is important, but an anorexic or overly dieted appearing is neither advantageous nor desirable. Definition within the confines of a well-muscled physique is what judges should be looking for. Definition and hardness are the signs of a "finished" physique, which is the result of hard training, the absence of body fat, and a limited retention of body water. Vascularity is a sign of a defined muscularity but is not always an indication of a finished physique (i.e.: vascular forearms on a competitor with a bloated midsection). Judges should examine vascularity in context with the other factors named herein when ascertaining levels of muscularity among

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